Their main physiological function is to secrete an alkaline-based mucus to protect the duodenal lining from the acid secreted in the stomach. The aetiology of these lesions is not yet clear. A single Brunner’s gland adenoma is occasionally seen. All the cases were identified during endoscopic assessment for unrelated ca … sectional areas. gland [gland] an aggregation of cells specialized to secrete or excrete materials not related to their ordinary metabolic needs. It may be an incidental finding during an investigation but can also present acutely with haemorrhage or obstruction, requiring endoscopic or surgical resection. They are variable in size, typically 1–3 cm, with only a few reported cases of lesions larger than 5 cm. A sample of the growth may be taken using an endoscope, a flexible viewing instrument with associated surgical tools. Brunner's gland hamartoma typically appears as a polypoid, pedunculated lesion ranging in size from 0.7 to 12 cm, with a mean of 4 cm [ 1 ]. Although complications are uncommon, a Brunner's gland tumor can sometimes block the gut. Brunner's gland cysts are rare, benign lesions of the duodenum usually seen as incidental, polypoid or cystic lesions of the duodenum. Between 85% and 90% of all neoplasms in the stomach and duodenum are benign. The proliferative lesions of the Brunner’s glands (BGs) are hyperplasia and hamartomas, and they are usually asymptomatic and very rarely diagnosed. We report two cases of Brunner's gland adenoma. He first described the glands in 1687. The highest concentration of Brunner glands is located in the proximal duodenum but can extend into the proximal jejunum. Brunner glands are compound tubular submucosal glands found in the duodenum. The duodenal glands which came to be known as Brunner's glands were named after the Swiss anatomist Johann Conrad Brunner. It is also an insidious cause of upper gastrointestinal obstruction because some patients may present with upper gastrointestinal bleeding, and a few of these tumors could be malignant, and therefore, warrant attention. Digestion and absorption is unregulated. Most patients with Brunner’s gland adenoma are asymptomatic or have non-specific complaints such as nausea, bloating, or vague abdominal pain . When symptomatic it presents either with duodenal obstruction or bleeding. 4, pp. Brunner’s gland hyperpla- Brunner’s glands are duodenal glands localized predominantly in the submucosa of proximal duodenum. Secretin is secreted by cells in the duodenum when they are exposed to the acidic contents of the emptying stomach. The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. On diagnostic imaging, the lesion presented as a non-invasive carcinoma; the patient also had uncontrolled diabetes and liver cirrhosis. R. Abbass and F. H. Al-Kawas, “Brunner gland hamartoma,” Gastroenterology & Hepatology, vol. Brunner's gland hamartoma typically appears as a polypoid, pedunculated lesion ranging in size from 0.7 to 12 cm, with a mean of 4 cm [ 1 ]. These glands extend through the duodenum, although they are not found beyond the sphincter of Oddi. Brunner Gland Hyperplasia (Brunner Gland Hamartoma) Duplication Cyst . That's really cool that there is a gland neutralizing the acid from the stomach so that it doesn't harm the intestines. Cruveilhier was the first to define BG adenomas in 1835 [1 1. We present a series of 25 cases of Brunner's gland cyst, the largest case series to date. 4, pp. Duodenal carcinoma originating in Brunner’s gland is rare. The main function of these glands is to produce a mucus-rich alkaline secretion (containing bicarbonate) in order to: Hyperplasia of Brunner glands with a lesion greater than 1 cm was initially described as a Brunner gland adenoma. They are only found proximal to the sphincter of Oddi. Brunner's glands cystadenoma is extremely rare and only two cases have been reported previously 1) (2. The pathogenesis of Brunner gland hamartoma of the duodenum is unknown. Brunner's glands are unique to mammalian species and in eutherians are confined primarilyto the submucosa of the proximal duodenum. Several features of these lesions favor their designation as hamartomas, including the lack of encapsulation; the mixture of acini, smooth muscles, adipose tissue, Paneth cells, and mucosal glands; and the lack of any cell atypia. The duodenum can be distinguished from the jejunum and ileum by the presence of Brunner’s glands in the submucosa. 72 year old man with duodenal obstruction secondary to Brunner gland hyperplasia (Pathologica 2017;109:414) 80 year old man with carcinoma arising from gastric foveolar metaplasia in the duodenum after 9 years of observation (Clin J Gastroenterol 2018;11:391) This is usually in such small amounts that it is not visible, but it can cause anemia and occasionally patients may pass or vomit blood. The glands are densely packed inside the submucosa, filling it completely. arising from the Brunner’s gland. @donasmrs-- The only main dysfunction of the Brunner's glands I've heard of is hyperplasia. They removed it because it was causing too many bad symptoms for my aunt. In a series of 27 patients, 70% of Brunner gland hamartomas were located in the duodenal bulb, 26% in the second portion of the duodenum, and 4% in the third portion. Brunner's gland adenoma (BGA) is an unusual benign neoplasm arising from Brunner's glands in the duodenum. They tend to be 1-2 cm in diameter, although case reports have described tumors of up to 12 cm diameter. Abbreviations Brunner’s gland hyperplasia is a type of proliferative disease of the duodenum, which is a very rare case. We present a case of duodenal obstruction caused by a BGH, which required surgical resection after a failed attempt at endoscopic removal. The occurrence of Brunner's gland adenoma in the duodenum is infrequent. 36 1. Hence, we decided to perform partial duodenectomy to reduce operative stress. Brunner’s gland hyperplasia is a rare entity that accounts for 10% of all benign duodenal tumors, with an estimated incidence of 0.008% . It leads to inflammation in the duodenum, which then leads to a tumor. Brunner's gland adenoma is a rare tumor of the duodenum and might also be an unusual cause of gastrointestinal bleeding or obstruction. Brunner’s gland hyperplasia is a rare, often benign proliferative disorder of the duodenum [1]. Conclusions This is a rare case of an adenocarcinoma arising from the Brunner’s gland of the duodenum that was resected by partial duodenectomy. Wikibuy Review: A Free Tool That Saves You Time and Money, 15 Creative Ways to Save Money That Actually Work. Brunner gland adenoma is a rare neoplasm derived from the exocrine glands of proximal duodenum. ),, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2015, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from May 2018, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, protect the duodenum from the acidic content of.